Latin America

Latin America countries have signed over 650 trade agreements. They have been the most targeted by investor-state disputes (ISDS). About 35% of all ICSID arbitration cases have involved a Latin American state.

Argentina itself has faced almost 60 ISDS disputes, about 9% of all cases, making it the most targeted state globally. Venezuela, Mexico and Ecuador have been among the ten most frequent respondents in the world.

Well-known cases such as Chevron vs. Ecuador or Pac Rim vs. El Salvador have originated in significant environmental damages caused by corporations. Philip Morris is currently suing Uruguay over its anti-tobacco law.

Besides, Chile, Mexico and Peru are party to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) with nine other Pacific Rim states. Its investment chapter has revealed the inclusion of ISDS provisions that would undermine public health, the environment and other public-interest ‘safeguards’.

The most well-known cases include:

• Chevron (US) vs. Ecuador: in 2013, an arbitration court ordered Ecuador to pay Chevron US$106 for breach of contract (Ecuador-United States BIT invoked). Meanwhile in a separate case, Ecuador’s highest court fined the oil giant US$9.5 billion for dumping billions of gallons of toxic waste into the rainforest. Both cases are unresolved.

Occidental Petroleum Corporation “Oxy” (US) vs. Ecuador: in 2012 Ecuador was ordered to pay US$1.77 billion to the investor, an oil exploration and production company, for breach of contract. Sentence was reduced to US$1 billion in November 2015 (Ecuador-United States BIT invoked).

• National Grid PLC (United Kingdom) vs. Argentina: about US$50 million awarded in 2008 to the investor, a multinational electricity and gas utility company (Argentine-United Kingdom BIT invoked).

(October 2015)

CIAR Global | 4-Jun-2019
La compañía panameña Latin American Regional Aviation Holding S. de R.L. presentó una demanda de arbitraje de inversiones contra Uruguay por la expropiación de la antigua aerolínea uruguaya Pluna Líneas Aéreas Uruguayas ante el CIADI.
Buenos Aires Times | 1-Jun-2019
The Cristina Fernández de Kirchner administration nationalised the airline in 2008, paying a symbolic one peso (30 US cents).
Ámbito | 30-May-2019
El país perdió un millonario juicio por la expropiación de la empresa Aerolíneas Argentinas en el CIADI, el tribunal arbitral del Banco Mundial, se informó hoy. Por consiguiente, deberá pagar 320 millones de dólares.
Nevada Capital News | 29-May-2019
In December of 2018, KCA filed a $300 million-dollar arbitration claim against the government of Guatemala under CAFTA-DR.
Los Tiempos | 28-May-2019
Uno de los clientes preferenciales de Appleby es la Suiza Glencore, que según los datos filtrados lleva décadas utilizando paraísos fiscales para encubrir tratos lucrativos y desviar millones de dólares.
Pauta | 28-May-2019
Una jueza federal de Estados Unidos confirmó un fallo del Ciadi, emitido en 2015, a favor del fabricante de envases de vidrio Owens-Illinois.
El Desconcierto | 27-May-2019
¿En qué sentido el TPP-11 cambia los derechos de las transnacionales y limita la soberanía nacional de los Estados? ¿Es solo un mito que este tratado aumenta el poder de las transnacionales?
Politis | 22-May-2019
Plus de 260 organisations, réseaux, syndicats et mouvements sociaux au niveau mondial, représentant plus de 280 millions de personnes, se sont mobilisés pour dénoncer l’impunité de Chevron en Équateur.
Tele Sur | 22-May-2019
Thousands of demonstrators across all five continents have joined the International Anti-Chevron day to peacefully protest and display global crimes committed by the transnational company against human rights and the environment.
CADTM | 17-May-2019
Si hay algún caso que evidencie la ofensiva de las empresas transnacionales contra la vida y la democracia ese es, sin duda, el caso Chevron.

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