North America

Canada and the United States have signed over 170 international investment agreements. The largest of these include the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) with ten other Pacific Rim states, currently in the process of being ratified.

The US is also party to the Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and is negotiating the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) with the European Union.

Canada has signed the Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA) with China and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the European Union, the latter one yet to be ratified.

US investors have extensively used the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions of these treaties. They have initiated around 130 disputes, over 20% of all known cases, making it the most frequent home state of the investor. The US has never lost an ISDS litigation.

On the other hand Canadian investors have initiated about 35 disputes and Canada has been the second most frequent target among developed states (5th globally).

(October 2015)

Le Figaro | 15-Nov-2017
La société ferroviaire américaine Omnitrax a menacé de saisir le tribunal d’arbitrage prévu par l’Accord de libre-échange nord-américain (Aléna) pour régler le désaccord qui l’oppose au gouvernement canadien sur la réparation d’une voie de chemin de fer.
L’Orient le Jour | 15-Nov-2017
Une grande partie du problème tient aux traités bilatéraux et aux dispositions sur l’investissement inscrites dans les accords commerciaux plus généraux.
National Post | 15-Nov-2017
Ottawa filed a lawsuit against the owners of a broken rail line in northern Manitoba hours after the company said it would file a complaint against the federal government under the North American Free Trade Agreement.
Digital Journal | 9-Nov-2017
To date, the Republic has not complied with the order and the Company is considering various options for enforcement of the award.
Project Syndicate | 9-Nov-2017
Much of the problem can be traced to bilateral investment treaties and investment rules embedded within broader trade pacts.
Alternatives Economiques | 9-Nov-2017
Plusieurs modifications indispensables auraient dû être apportées au CETA pour le rendre climato-compatible.
Blastingnews | 31-Oct-2017
El CETA es eso que han aprobado mientras os contaban lo malos que son en Venezuela y Cataluña
No al TTIP | 31-Oct-2017
Desde la Campaña No al TTIP queremos expresar nuevamente nuestro rechazo tanto a la ratificación de este tratado por parte del Senado español como a su aplicación provisional.
AFTINET | 30-Oct-2017
US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer said that the US wants to opt out of ISDS in NAFTA, because of the risk and costs of US governments being sued by foreign corporations, and despite corporate lobby groups pushing to retain ISDS.
Public Citizen | 27-Oct-2017
As corporate lobby rages against proposed ISDS rollback, law professors and economists say ISDS undermines rule of law and subsidizes offshoring

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