Europe

European Union member states have signed over 1500 trade agreements with third countries, in addition to some 200 bilateral investment treaties (BIT) between EU members. Non-EU European states are party to over 700 trade agreements. Most of all of these contain investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions.

The EU as such has only ratified one treaty with an ISDS mechanism, the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), to which 52 European and Central Asian countries are party. The EU is also in the process of ratifying comprehensive trade agreements with Canada (CETA) and Singapore, both of which include ISDS provisions, and is currently negotiating trade deals with the US (TTIP), India, Malaysia, Vietnam and many other countries.

The EU has initiated the majority of disputes if all claims submitted by EU member states are grouped together (300 from the 28 member states put together in 2014). Only 11% of awards in favour of investors from the EU have been made public, corresponding to a total known amount of about €3.5 billion. European states altogether have been targeted in 46% of all cases (2013).

At the end of 2014, the number of intra-EU ISDS disputes amounted to 99, approximately 16% of all cases globally, half of which having been brought under the ECT.

Overall, the Czech Republic, Spain and Poland have been among the ten most frequent respondent states, while the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland have been among the ten most frequent home states of the investor.

The most well-known cases include:

Yukos (Isle of Man) vs. Russia: US$50 billion awarded in 2014 to majority shareholders of the oil and gas company (ECT invoked).

Eureko (Netherland) vs. Poland: case settled in 2005 for about €2 billion in favour of the investor, a large European insurance company (Netherland-Poland BIT invoked)

Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka (Czech Republic) vs. Slovak Republic: €553 million awarded in 2004 to the investor, one of the largest commercial banks in the Czech Republic (Czech Republic-Slovak Republic BIT invoked)

(March 2016)

La Nación | 26-Sep-2019
Se trata del segundo reclamo que recibe el gobierno de Mauricio Macri ante el Ciadi, luego de que la empresa española Orazul International España Holdings presentara una demanda basada en la protección que entrega el Tratado Bilateral de Inversiones (TBI) Argentina-España a las empresas nacionales respecto de las conductas de alguno de los países.
OpenEXP | 23-Sep-2019
The Energy Charter Treaty is a multilateral agreement that grants binding protection for foreign investors and includes also binding provisions for free trade and freedom of transit of energy materials and products.
Euractiv | 23-Sep-2019
The EU and its member states should collectively withdraw from the Energy Charter Treaty, which protects fossil fuel investments.
IISD | 20-Sep-2019
This claim to the long series of cases arising out of Italy’s reform of its scheme of incentive tariffs for solar energy.
IISD | 20-Sep-2019
Cette affaire vient élarger la longue liste d’affaires découlant de la réforme menée par l’Italie de son mécanisme d’octroi de tarifs préférentiels dans l’énergie solaire.
Alternatives Economiques | 20-Sep-2019
Un nouveau cas de litige entre investisseurs étrangers et Etats se profile dans le cadre du Traité sur la Charte de l’énergie, à l’origine de nombreuses affaires qui ont défrayé la chronique en Europe.
Lexology | 19-Sep-2019
A federal court in Washington, DC has recognized and enforced a US$331 million arbitral award against Romania under an intra-EU BIT—notwithstanding the objection of the European Commission that the award is incompatible with EU law.
UNIAN | 17-Sep-2019
PrivatBank commenced the arbitration on April 13, 2015, for breaches of the Russian Federation’s obligations towards PrivatBank’s assets in Crimea.
Cinco Días | 16-Sep-2019
Schwab Holding y OperaFund Ecoinvest ganan un laudo arbitral.
AFTINET | 16-Sep-2019
German company Uniper has threatened to bring an ISDS case against the Dutch government after a decision to ban coal-based power generation by 2030.

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