Europe

European Union member states have signed over 1500 trade agreements with third countries, in addition to some 200 bilateral investment treaties (BIT) between EU members. Non-EU European states are party to over 700 trade agreements. Most of all of these contain investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions.

The EU as such has only ratified one treaty with an ISDS mechanism, the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), to which 52 European and Central Asian countries are party. The EU is also in the process of ratifying comprehensive trade agreements with Canada (CETA) and Singapore, both of which include ISDS provisions, and is currently negotiating trade deals with the US (TTIP), India, Malaysia, Vietnam and many other countries.

The EU has initiated the majority of disputes if all claims submitted by EU member states are grouped together (300 from the 28 member states put together in 2014). Only 11% of awards in favour of investors from the EU have been made public, corresponding to a total known amount of about €3.5 billion. European states altogether have been targeted in 46% of all cases (2013).

At the end of 2014, the number of intra-EU ISDS disputes amounted to 99, approximately 16% of all cases globally, half of which having been brought under the ECT.

Overall, the Czech Republic, Spain and Poland have been among the ten most frequent respondent states, while the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland have been among the ten most frequent home states of the investor.

The most well-known cases include:

Yukos (Isle of Man) vs. Russia: US$50 billion awarded in 2014 to majority shareholders of the oil and gas company (ECT invoked).

Eureko (Netherland) vs. Poland: case settled in 2005 for about €2 billion in favour of the investor, a large European insurance company (Netherland-Poland BIT invoked)

Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka (Czech Republic) vs. Slovak Republic: €553 million awarded in 2004 to the investor, one of the largest commercial banks in the Czech Republic (Czech Republic-Slovak Republic BIT invoked)

(March 2016)

CCPA | 10-Apr-2019
Many countries have become wary of the system and are restructuring or terminating their investment agreements. This is the ambience in which the Court of Justice will decide whether the CETA is compatible with EU law.
Stop ISDS | 9-Apr-2019
A permanent Multilateral Investment Court pushed by the European Union could make ISDS worse by scaling it up.
Calgary Herald | 9-Apr-2019
The Czech-based company Petrolama Namur Oil Sands Exploration filed a notice of dispute against Canada on March 29 over the delay in completing the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline.
El Salto Diario | 1-Apr-2019
En esta segunda parte abordamos los problemas de los tratados de inversión y los ISDS, ofreciendo varios ejemplos de su presencia en la Unión Europea, incluyendo la delicada situación de España, que se sitúa entre los países más demandados de nuestro entorno.
Sud Info | 27-Mar-2019
C’est le 30 avril prochain que la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne rendra son avis concernant la compatibilité avec le droit de l’UE du système d’arbitrage prévu dans l’accord commercial entre l’Union et le Canada (CETA).
MENAFN | 26-Mar-2019
British Petroceltic announced filing an arbitration case against the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) at the World Bank Group’s ICSID.
Les Yeux du Monde | 26-Mar-2019
Pensés au départ pour pallier le manque de stabilité des investissements dans des pays réputés instables, les mécanismes d’arbitrage international se sont peu à peu érigés en véritables vecteurs d’influence pour les entreprises.
The Citizen | 25-Mar-2019
The preferential protection of bilateral investments between Tanzania and the Netherlands is likely to cease next month but the protection for investments made before the date of termination continues to apply for a period of 15 years (until 1 April 2034).
TV Maghreb | 22-Mar-2019
Le groupe SAUR et sa filiale STEREAU ont fait appel au CIRDI contre l’Algérie concernant un litige sur une station d’épuration des eaux, en vertu de l’accord d’investissement avec la France.
Cinco Días | 21-Mar-2019
De los 44 arbitrajes registrados, 17 encaran su fase final este año. El Ciadi acaba de dar la razón a Demeter y Cube, en un octavo laudo

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