Europe

European Union member states have signed over 1500 trade agreements with third countries, in addition to some 200 bilateral investment treaties (BIT) between EU members. Non-EU European states are party to over 700 trade agreements. Most of all of these contain investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions.

The EU as such has only ratified one treaty with an ISDS mechanism, the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), to which 52 European and Central Asian countries are party. The EU is also in the process of ratifying comprehensive trade agreements with Canada (CETA) and Singapore, both of which include ISDS provisions, and is currently negotiating trade deals with the US (TTIP), India, Malaysia, Vietnam and many other countries.

The EU has initiated the majority of disputes if all claims submitted by EU member states are grouped together (300 from the 28 member states put together in 2014). Only 11% of awards in favour of investors from the EU have been made public, corresponding to a total known amount of about €3.5 billion. European states altogether have been targeted in 46% of all cases (2013).

At the end of 2014, the number of intra-EU ISDS disputes amounted to 99, approximately 16% of all cases globally, half of which having been brought under the ECT.

Overall, the Czech Republic, Spain and Poland have been among the ten most frequent respondent states, while the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland have been among the ten most frequent home states of the investor.

The most well-known cases include:

Yukos (Isle of Man) vs. Russia: US$50 billion awarded in 2014 to majority shareholders of the oil and gas company (ECT invoked).

Eureko (Netherland) vs. Poland: case settled in 2005 for about €2 billion in favour of the investor, a large European insurance company (Netherland-Poland BIT invoked)

Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka (Czech Republic) vs. Slovak Republic: €553 million awarded in 2004 to the investor, one of the largest commercial banks in the Czech Republic (Czech Republic-Slovak Republic BIT invoked)

(March 2016)

Belarus Digest | 22-Jan-2019
In late 2017 and 2018, Belarus faced a record-breaking three investment arbitration claims.
TNI | 22-Jan-2019
Join the movement to end corporate privilege, sign the petition!
Politis | 22-Jan-2019
Cent cinquante ONG, syndicats et associations s’associent pour demander la fin des « tribunaux arbitraux » qui protègent les multinationales. Elles espèrent imposer le « devoir de vigilance » comme une nouvelle norme.
No al TTIP | 22-Jan-2019
Coincidiendo con el inicio del Foro Económico Mundial en Davos 2019, una coalición de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, movimientos sociales y sindicatos de más de 18 países de la UE lanzan la campaña ‘Derechos para las personas, obligaciones para las multinacionales. Stop ISDS’.
European Commission | 18-Jan-2019
The EU and its Member States submitted two papers to the UN Working Group under the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL).
New Europe | 18-Jan-2019
22 of the 28 EU nations have committed to terminate their bilateral investment treaties and use their influence as home states and respondent-states to notify tribunals of the non-arbitrability of intra-EU bilateral investment treaties and Energy Charter Treaty claims.
CIAR Global | 18-Jan-2019
El pasado 15 de enero, los Estados miembros de la UE emitieron una declaración en la que se comprometen a rescindir los Tratados Bilaterales de Inversión (TBIs) entre ellos como consecuencia jurídica del caso Achmea.
Jeune Afrique | 16-Jan-2019
En mai, le Cirdi a débouté Veolia mais le groupe français assure vouloir poursuivre son action au Caire afin que sa filiale puisse être dûment indemnisée.
European Papers | 15-Jan-2019
If the European Court of Justice applied in Opinion 1/17 the same test it used in Achmea, it would probably conclude that the CETA tribunal is not compatible with EU law.
Medias24 | 15-Jan-2019
La société allemande, qui dénonce des mesures "discriminatoires et arbitraires" imposées par le gouvernement marocain dans le secteur de la sidérurgie, réclame 60 millions d’euros au Maroc.

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