North America

Canada and the United States have signed over 170 international investment agreements. The largest of these include the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) with ten other Pacific Rim states, currently in the process of being ratified.

The US is also party to the Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and is negotiating the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) with the European Union.

Canada has signed the Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA) with China and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the European Union, the latter one yet to be ratified.

US investors have extensively used the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions of these treaties. They have initiated around 130 disputes, over 20% of all known cases, making it the most frequent home state of the investor. The US has never lost an ISDS litigation.

On the other hand Canadian investors have initiated about 35 disputes and Canada has been the second most frequent target among developed states (5th globally).

(October 2015)

Reuters | 24-Mar-2017
Transcanada Corp’s legal challenge against the United States over its past rejection of Keystone XL pipeline has been dropped.
IISD | 22-Mar-2017
A tribunal under the auspices of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) dismissed all claims by Canadian businessman Peter A. Allard against Barbados.
Tech Dirt | 22-Mar-2017
Just the fact that the Canadian government had to go through this massive and expensive process for many years just for rejecting two bad patents should show why ISDS provisions are such a problem.
No al TTIP | 21-Mar-2017
Según el periódico Público, el tratado comercial entre la Unión Europea (UE) y Canadá llegará pronto a las Cortes Generales.
TeleSUR | 21-Mar-2017
Exxon Mobil y Conoco Phillips rechazan el marco legal que rige a Venezuela, en las que PDVSA tiene el 60 por ciento de las acciones y el resto es dispuesto para la participación de transnacionales.
Politico | 20-Mar-2017
Canada has prevailed over pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly in a long-running investor-state dispute the drug company filed under NAFTA’s investment chapter.
Daily Business Review | 17-Mar-2017
Lawyers for Exxon Mobil have asked a federal judge to order Venezuela to pay the company more than $188.3 million—the amount Exxon Mobil says it is still owed as repayment for the 2007 expropriation of its oil assets.
Alternatives Economiques | 15-Mar-2017
Le petit livre précis, informé et critique de la journaliste Haley Sweetland Edwards vient à point nommé pour expliquer les enjeux de la contestation contre les tribunaux d’arbitrage.
Romandie | 13-Mar-2017
La condamnation du Venezuela à verser 1,4 milliard de dollars à ExxonMobil pour la nationalisation d’un champ pétrolier sous le mandat d’Hugo Chavez a été annulée par une juridiction d’arbitrage internationale.
International Economic Law and Policy Blog | 13-Mar-2017
An ICSID Annulment Committee’s decision to reduce the damages to be paid to Exxon by $1.4 billion seems like a cause for celebration-a victory of economic sovereignty over Big Oil. But as gifts to economic justice go, this one is a Trojan horse indeed.

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