Latin America

Latin American and Caribbean countries have signed almost 700 investment agreements. They have been targeted in almost 300 investor-state disputes.

Argentina has faced almost 62 ISDS cases, about 6% of all cases, making it the world’s most targeted state. Venezuela and Mexico have been among the ten most frequent respondents in the world, with 51 and 33 cases, respectively.

Many key cases such as Renco vs. Peru, Chevron vs. Ecuador or Pac Rim vs. El Salvador have originated in significant environmental damages caused by corporations. Philip Morris took an ISDS case against Uruguay over its anti-tobacco law.

Chile, Mexico and Peru are also party to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) with eight other Pacific Rim states. The TPP includes an investor-state dispute mechanism that undermines public-interest ‘safeguards’.

The most well-known cases ISDS cases in the region include:

Chevron (US) vs. Ecuador: For 26 years, Texaco, later acquired by Chevron, performed oil operations in Ecuador. Ecuadorian courts found that during that period the company dumped billions of gallons of toxic water and dug hundreds of open-air oil sludge pits in Ecuador’s Amazon, poisoning the communities of some 30,000 Amazon residents. After a legal battle spanning two decades, in November 2013, Ecuador’s highest court ordered the corporation to pay $9.5 billion to provide desperately needed clean-up and health care to afflicted indigenous communities. Chevron challenged the decisions produced by Ecuador’s domestic legal system before an ISDS tribunal. In 2018, the arbitration tribunal held that the $9.5 billion judgment was fraudulent, violated international public policy and should not be recognised or enforced by the courts of other States. The amount of the award has not been established yet. (Ecuador-United States BIT invoked)

Occidental Petroleum Corporation “Oxy” (US) vs. Ecuador: in 2012 Ecuador was ordered to pay US$1.77 billion to the investor, an oil exploration and production company, for breach of contract. Sentence was reduced to US$1 billion in November 2015 (Ecuador-United States BIT invoked).

Investors vs. Argentina: When Argentina froze its utility rates in response to its 2001-2002 financial crisis, it was hit by over 40 lawsuits from investors, including Suez & Vivendi (France), Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona S.A (Spain) and Anglian Water (UK). The ISDS tribunal concluded that Argentina had breached the investors’ right to fair and equitable treatment. By 2014, the country had been ordered to pay a total of US$980 million (various BITs invoked).

(April 2020)

El Comercio | 28-Feb-2020
La Procuraduría General del Estado detalla que de seis arbitrajes en contra de Ecuador por temas de inversiones, cuatro son de firmas norteamericanas.
Radio Canada | 27-Feb-2020
Cosigo Resources réclame 22 milliards de dollars, car elle ne peut pas exploiter de l’or sur un territoire autochtone.
Reuters | 21-Feb-2020
Chinese mining consortium Ecuagoldmining has initiated a dispute with Ecuador’s government over a gold mining project that has been halted by objections from community activists.
Primicias | 21-Feb-2020
El consorcio chino Ecuagoldmining notificó a Ecuador la existencia de una “disputa internacional” según un tratado de protección de inversiones suscrito con China, por falta de garantías para operar el proyecto Río Blanco.
Sputnik | 19-Feb-2020
Perú comunicó que no aceptará la propuesta de la empresa OLI Lux (perteneciente al Grupo Odebrecht) de iniciarle un proceso arbitral ante el CIADI por la cancelación en 2017 del proyecto Gasoducto Sur Peruano.
ISDS impactos | 18-Feb-2020
En 2018, Colombia fue el país más demandado ante tribunales de arbitraje privados por parte de corporaciones transnacionales.
Ciar Global | 18-Feb-2020
The arbitration between the US mining company Renco Group and Peru in relation to the metallurgical deposit in La Oroya was reopened, at the request of the mining company.
Ciar Global | 17-Feb-2020
El arbitraje entre la minera estadounidense Renco Group y Perú relacionado con el yacimiento metalúrgico La Oroya se abrió de nuevo, a instancias de la minera.
Nouvelles du Monde | 13-Feb-2020
L’entreprise brésilienne Odebrecht a demandé à rencontrer les représentants de l’État péruvien afin de parvenir à un accord mutuel comme “alternative” à la demande de 1,2 milliard de dollars.
Ciar Global | 11-Feb-2020
Odebrecht ofrece la suspensión del procedimiento de arbitraje si se garantiza el reinicio del proyecto Gasoducto Sur Peruano por otro inversionista privado, sin costos para el Estado.

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