Latin America

Latin America countries have signed over 650 trade agreements. They have been the most targeted by investor-state disputes (ISDS). About 35% of all ICSID arbitration cases have involved a Latin American state.

Argentina itself has faced almost 60 ISDS disputes, about 9% of all cases, making it the most targeted state globally. Venezuela, Mexico and Ecuador have been among the ten most frequent respondents in the world.

Well-known cases such as Chevron vs. Ecuador or Pac Rim vs. El Salvador have originated in significant environmental damages caused by corporations. Philip Morris is currently suing Uruguay over its anti-tobacco law.

Besides, Chile, Mexico and Peru are party to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) with nine other Pacific Rim states. Its investment chapter has revealed the inclusion of ISDS provisions that would undermine public health, the environment and other public-interest ‘safeguards’.

The most well-known cases include:

• Chevron (US) vs. Ecuador: in 2013, an arbitration court ordered Ecuador to pay Chevron US$106 for breach of contract (Ecuador-United States BIT invoked). Meanwhile in a separate case, Ecuador’s highest court fined the oil giant US$9.5 billion for dumping billions of gallons of toxic waste into the rainforest. Both cases are unresolved.

Occidental Petroleum Corporation “Oxy” (US) vs. Ecuador: in 2012 Ecuador was ordered to pay US$1.77 billion to the investor, an oil exploration and production company, for breach of contract. Sentence was reduced to US$1 billion in November 2015 (Ecuador-United States BIT invoked).

• National Grid PLC (United Kingdom) vs. Argentina: about US$50 million awarded in 2008 to the investor, a multinational electricity and gas utility company (Argentine-United Kingdom BIT invoked).

(October 2015)

Historia y Presente | 12-Sep-2018
Lo que a los ecuatorianos nos interesa es que en materia internacional se defienda el decoro nacional, el interés público, los derechos de los ciudadanos, contra los intereses privados y de cualquier empresa extranjera capaz de burlarse del Ecuador a través de aquellos TBI
El Periódico | 12-Sep-2018
El proyecto que inició como TCQ amenaza con ser el tercer caso que obliga al país a defenderse en el exterior. La demanda alcanzaría los US$200 millones.
BNamericas | 12-Sep-2018
Spanish construction firm Sacyr has launched arbitration proceedings claim against the Panamanian state before the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL).
BNamericas | 12-Sep-2018
APM Terminals, the Spanish subsidiary of Danish company Maersk group, has informed the Guatemalan government of its intention to start arbitration proceedings over a ruling that voids its concession contract to operate a container terminal in Quetzal.
Portal Portuario | 12-Sep-2018
Sacyr inició un arbitraje internacional contra Panamá ante Naciones Unidas con el fin de resolver sus reclamaciones respecto de la inversión que el consorcio que lidera realizó para construir la ampliación del Canal.
RT | 11-Sep-2018
El tribunal determinó que Quito violó el Tratado Bilateral de Inversión y no brindó un trato justo y equitativo a la petrolera.
CNCD 11.11.11 | 11-Sep-2018
Le jugement du panel d’arbitrage s’abat comme un couperet sur les 30.000 personnes affectées par les dégâts de l’exploitation pétrolière de Chevron en Amazonie.
El Comercio | 10-Sep-2018
El Estado ecuatoriano afronta 36 procesos legales en su contra en cortes extranjeras. Entre estos se encuentra el caso Chevron 3, que en un laudo parcial que se conoció el pasado viernes (7 de septiembre del 2018), fue resuelto en favor de esta firma privada.
TeleSur | 10-Sep-2018
Ecuador will be forced to pay economic reparations to the oil giant. The over 30,000 affected people in the Amazon haven’t received any compensation.
RFI | 10-Sep-2018
La Cour permanente d’arbitrage de La Haye a annulé un jugement de la justice équatorienne condamnant la compagnie pétrolière américaine Chevron à payer 9,5 milliards de dollars de dédommagement pour dégâts écologiques dans la région amazonienne de l’Equateur.

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