Europe

European Union member states have signed over 1500 trade agreements with third countries, in addition to some 200 bilateral investment treaties (BIT) between EU members. Non-EU European states are party to over 700 trade agreements. Most of all of these contain investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions.

The EU as such has only ratified one treaty with an ISDS mechanism, the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), to which 52 European and Central Asian countries are party. The EU is also in the process of ratifying comprehensive trade agreements with Canada (CETA) and Singapore, both of which include ISDS provisions, and is currently negotiating trade deals with the US (TTIP), India, Malaysia, Vietnam and many other countries.

The EU has initiated the majority of disputes if all claims submitted by EU member states are grouped together (300 from the 28 member states put together in 2014). Only 11% of awards in favour of investors from the EU have been made public, corresponding to a total known amount of about €3.5 billion. European states altogether have been targeted in 46% of all cases (2013).

At the end of 2014, the number of intra-EU ISDS disputes amounted to 99, approximately 16% of all cases globally, half of which having been brought under the ECT.

Overall, the Czech Republic, Spain and Poland have been among the ten most frequent respondent states, while the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland have been among the ten most frequent home states of the investor.

The most well-known cases include:

Yukos (Isle of Man) vs. Russia: US$50 billion awarded in 2014 to majority shareholders of the oil and gas company (ECT invoked).

Eureko (Netherland) vs. Poland: case settled in 2005 for about €2 billion in favour of the investor, a large European insurance company (Netherland-Poland BIT invoked)

Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka (Czech Republic) vs. Slovak Republic: €553 million awarded in 2004 to the investor, one of the largest commercial banks in the Czech Republic (Czech Republic-Slovak Republic BIT invoked)

(March 2016)

CIAR | 12-Dec-2018
El pasado 30 de noviembre, la compañía neerlandesa Aram Asset Management notificó su intención de acudir a arbitraje de inversiones contra el Gobierno de Perú en relación con la expropiación de sus negocios de comercialización de oro en 2013.
Reporterre | 12-Dec-2018
"Quand les multinationales attaquent les États " montre à travers trois affaires significatives combien les tribunaux d’arbitrage internationaux menacent l’intérêt général au profit des intérêts des multinationales.
Alternatives Economiques | 11-Dec-2018
Le meilleur moyen de se prémunir de la menace des tribunaux d’arbitrage est de ne pas signer de nouveaux accords et d’y mettre fin dans les anciens.
Nasdaq | 28-Nov-2018
Ukraine’s Oschadbank has been awarded $1.3 billion by an international arbitration court in respect of the bank’s claims against Russia to compensate for loss of business and assets in Crimea following Moscow’s annexation of the peninsula in 2014.
CIAR Global | 20-Nov-2018
La compañía danesa Athena Investments ha emitido un comunicado en el que da a conocer el resultado del laudo del arbitraje de inversiones que mantenía con España desde 2015 ante un tribunal del Instituto de Arbitraje de la Cámara de Comercio de Estocolmo (SCC) que le favorece con una indemnización de 11 millones de euros.
Globe Newswire | 16-Nov-2018
The net award for Athena Investments amounts to approx. EUR 11M.
Business Review | 15-Nov-2018
Romania is the subject of six commercial trials at the World Bank’s International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), with the claimants demanding more than EUR 7 billion in damages.
Business Review | 13-Nov-2018
The Romanian government has won a trial at World Bank’s International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes against the Swiss-based energy trader Alpiq in a case related to Hidroelectrica insolvency procedure.
Romandie | 12-Nov-2018
Alpiq a été débouté dans une procédure arbitrale avec l’Etat roumain dans le litige qui l’opposait à la société énergétique publique roumaine Hidroelectrica.
Slovak Spectator | 9-Nov-2018
The German Supreme Court dismissed the original arbitration decision against Slovakia concerning the ban on health-insurance companies’ profits.

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